What is option trading | Option trading basics explained in Malayalam

Unlocking the Basics of Option Trading in the Share Market (Malayalam video included)

Our latest video on Share Market Malayalam youtube channel dives into the key aspects of options trading that every investor should understand. This comprehensive guide aims to clearly explain critical concepts for both beginners and experienced traders who want to utilize options as an investment strategy. Also check Malayalam video link given below in this post.

Deciphering Option Contracts

Options trading may seem complicated initially, but just remember that an options contract gives you the right to buy or sell something at a specific price before a certain date. It's basically a deal you can make to buy or sell shares or a market index in the future.

Let's take a simple example. Say Reliance, India's one of the main stock, is currently valued at 2,000 points. You could enter an options contract that gives you the right to buy units of Nifty at ₹2,020 per unit in a specified time.

So if Reliance rises above 2,020 in that time, your contract lets you buy units at ₹2,020 even though the actual value is higher. This way you lock in that price through your contract and can immediately sell those units at the new higher price for quick profits.

Options sound complex but at their core, they are just contracts allowing you time-bound rights to buy or sell at a fixed rate. Understanding this sets you up nicely for smart trading decisions. No need to stress too much over the jargon initially - just grasp the key idea behind what options aim to help you achieve as a trader.

An option contract allows the holder to buy or sell an underlying asset at a set price within a defined timeframe. Two crucial elements - the expiration date and predetermined price - make options contracts unique financial tools.

2.1 Time Plays a Pivotal Role

Unlike stocks which trade indefinitely, option contracts expire. This compressed timeframe introduces unique risk-management decisions for buyers and sellers. An option's temporal nature can translate into profitable investment strategies when understood properly.

2.2 Standardized Contracts

While each option represents a specific company's stock, all contracts adhere to standardized specifications regarding size, expiration cycles and strike prices. Options trade actively on exchanges just like equities, with live market prices reflecting supply and demand.

2.3 Managing Risk Through Options

Options markets enable traders to hedge positions in the underlying asset or speculate on price moves. For each contract, the buyer holds rights while the seller has obligations to fulfill the terms. This asymmetry introduces both risks and opportunities. By paying a premium upfront, buyers can secure favorable stock prices amidst future volatility.

Utilizing Options for Protection

Option contracts offer both rights and obligations between buyers and sellers, enabling a variety of risk-management strategies.

3.1 Exercising the Option

Call option buyers pay an upfront premium to secure the right, but not the obligation, to purchase the underlying stock. Meanwhile, option sellers receive this premium by taking on the legal obligation to sell shares at the agreed strike price if the call buyer chooses to exercise their contractual rights.

3.2 The Power of Premiums

This upfront payment dynamically shifts risk between buyers and sellers based on their motivations. Option sellers collect premiums immediately while option buyers pay premiums to protect against or profit from future stock movements ahead of expiration dates. Traders weigh premium costs relative to the protection or exposure gained.

3.3 Presetting Prices Through Strike Selection

The predetermined strike price forms the crux of the option agreement. Buyers of call options fix the maximum amount they will pay for shares in the future, while put option buyers lock in minimum sale prices. Strike selection directly impacts premium costs and the level of protection offered.

Option Contract Specifications

Understanding Option Contracts

4.1 Underlying Stock

The option contract is linked to an underlying stock or a derivative of that stock. Buying an option gives you the right to buy or sell the underlying asset.

4.2 Types of Options: CE/PE, Call and Put

There are two types of options:

Call (CE) Options: Give you the right to buy the underlying asset

Put (PE) Options: Give you the right to sell the underlying asset

4.3 Expiration Date

Every option contract expires on a specific date. On expiration, either the option is settled financially without needing to handle the physical asset, or it leads to the actual buying/selling of the underlying asset based on the strike price.

4.4 Option Premium (Price)

The current market price of an option is called the premium. The premium is determined by factors like:

  • Current price of the underlying asset
  • Time remaining till expiry
  • Estimated future price volatility
  • Overall demand and supply dynamics

4.5 Lot Size

Every option contract represents a fixed number or lot size of the underlying stock set by the exchanges. This determines the quantity you get exposure to when buying options.

Market Dynamics for Options

5.1 Buyers and Sellers in the Options Market

The options market, just like stocks, comprises of buyers and sellers. The price discovery happens through the interplay of demand and supply.

As a buyer, you pay the premium to acquire the right to buy or sell the underlying asset in the future. As a seller, you get the premium in exchange for obligating to deliver the asset to the buyer.

5.2 Factors Influencing Option Contract Value

What drives the price or value of an option contract? There are a few key parameters:

  • Current price of the underlying stock: The higher the spot price, the more valuable the call options, while for put options it is vice versa.
  • Time to expiration: The longer the validity, the higher is the chance of the spot price changing favorably, enhancing the option value.
  • Volatility of the underlying asset: Higher the expected fluctuation potential, greater is the option value.
  • Demand and supply: Options pricing reacting to buying and selling pressures in the derivatives market.

In summary, options value is a function of spot price, timeline, volatility and dynamic market forces like any other traded asset class. Understanding their interplay is helpful for trading strategies.

Why Trade Options?

6.1 Hedging Positions

Options allow investors to hedge and protect their portfolio against potential losses. For example, if you own stocks, you can buy put options to insure against a fall in prices.

6.2 Crafting Unique Trades

Options give the flexibility to construct customized trades not possible with just stocks - like spreads and combinations to improve the risk-reward payoff.

6.3 Cost Reduction

Strategic use of options can reduce the overall capital required to invest in stocks through leverage.

6.4 Capitalizing on Time Decay

As expiry nears, the premium of options declines giving advantage to the seller. This drop in value with passage of time, known as time decay, can generate steady returns.

Check this video from our YouTube channel about this topic - https://youtu.be/htmgyvykXDk?si=MN7VWzsDn8y30zIQ

Also check this post to know about mistakes a beginner trader makes in option trading - Avoid These 5 Option Trading Mistakes Beginners Make While Trading

Frequently Asked Questions

7.1 How does the premium in option trading impact overall costs?

The premium in option trading is the transaction cost, influencing the total investment in the option contract.

7.2 Can options be used for hedging against potential losses?

Yes, options are commonly used for hedging positions, providing a safeguard against adverse market movements.

7.3 What are the key factors influencing the value of an option?

The value of an option is influenced by the stock price, time to expiration, implied volatility, and broader market dynamics such as supply and demand.

You can find option trading basics video in Malayalam in our youtube channel. Check it.

Check all posts in our option trading series

1 - What is option trading | Option trading basics explained in Malayalam - https://www.teqmocharts.com/2022/07/option-trading-basics-imalayalam.html

2 - Option Trading Basics | Intrinsic value in option trading - https://www.teqmocharts.com/2022/07/option-trading-malayalam.html

3 -  What is call option | How to buy or sell a call option in Upstox - https://www.teqmocharts.com/2022/07/Call-option-malayalam.html

4 - What is put option | How to buy/sell put option in Upstox - https://www.teqmocharts.com/2022/07/what-is-put-option-how-to-buysell-put.html

5 - When to buy or sell a call or put option | 4 types of orders in options - https://www.teqmocharts.com/2022/07/when-to-buy-or-sell-call-or-put-option.html

6 - Moneyness of an option contract | In the money | At the money | Out of the money option contracts - https://www.teqmocharts.com/2022/07/moneyness-of-option-contract-in-money.html

7 - What is open interest in option trading | Open interest explained in Malayalam - https://www.teqmocharts.com/2022/07/what-is-open-interest-in-option-trading.html

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